[Focus] History of Anti-national, Anti-religious and Anti-social Acts of ‘Korean Presbyterian‧Christian Council of Korea’

[Daily Cheonji=Reporter Kang Soo Kyung]'Shrine worship is not a religious,but a national matter. On September 10th 1938, the Korean Presbyterian Church resolved that they would worship Japanese Tenn-god at the 27th general assembly. It was a clear act of apostasy(betrayal)that broke the first of the Ten Commandments. Some pastors, who had protested against the assemblys resolution, were imprisoned and established the Kosin denomination (Korea Theology school) after liberation from Japan. In 1969, during the era of the Third Republic of Korea, a constitutional amendment to the third term had been enacted to extend a third consecutive term to military dictator President Chung-hee Park. At that time, pastors of the Korean churches praised the Yushin regime and also supported the constitutional amendment tothe third term. Moreover, pastors formed 'Crusade of National Salvation' and partook in military drills and bayonet training. CCK has acted as the main representative ofthe Korean Church without permission from its congregation members. It is a political organization under the guise of an evangelistic one. CCK was established by pastors of the Korean Presbyterian church who had supported the Constitutional Amendment to the Third Term in 1989. CCK was founded to support the government against the progressive protestant party that was carryingout a pro-democracy movement. If you pay 1 billion won for election as chairman of the CCK, you will win.But if you only use half, you will lose. CCK pastors, who are on a pro-government march seem to be more like politicians than religious leaders and far from the field of religion. It was even assumed that one could give bribes(money) in exchange for the chairmanship of CCK.Recently, one pastor, who ran for election as chairman of CCK, confessed 1 billion to win, 0.5 billion to lose. This resulted in social and religious criticism against CCK. The Full Gospel denomination, of which the chairman of CCK belongs, claimed that the end of the world would take place in 1998 and that the whole church building would be raptured skywards. However, the church is stillstandingtoday in Korea. Shincheonji Church of Jesus has produced more than 200 doctrine comparison videos and shared them with the public to expose the anti-religious lies of the established denominations. The public has chosen the explanationsof the Bibleby Shincheonji Church of Jesus as the correct ones.

[Issue-In] The Supreme Court Orders CBS to produce a counterargument to “Shincheonji Church is Anti-Nation, Anti-Social and Anti-Religion”… “Nevertheless ‘Constant Harassment’ Works”

[Daily Cheonji=Reporter, Kang Sookyung] Heavenly Culture, World Peace, Restoration of Light (HWPL: Chairman Man Hee Lee) announced that it would hold 'The 4th annual commemoration of the WARP Summit (World Alliance of Religions' Peace)' at Incheon Asiade Main Stadium. It is going to be held simultaneously in 97 major cities worldwide, including major cities in South Korea. However, HWPL is having difficulties in renting stadium for an event in opposition to some Protestant denominations which insist that WARP Summit is a camouflage event with a reason why Chairman of HWPL is a chairman of Shicheonji church and that Shincheonji church causes social problems that are anti-nation and anti-social, and encourages its members to run away from home. As the event is just around the corner, HWPL has been reported that the organizers are experiencing difficulties. These protestants have been claiming that 'Shincheonji church is anti-nation, anti-social and illegal, and that it also incites people to run away from home, which has led to social problems over the last ten years. They have also been using such claims as their basis of argument against Shincheonji church in order to hinder any Shincheonji church event (preventing venue hire, demanding withdrawal of participation from an event etc) actively. As a result of their efforts in preventing venue hire for Shincheonji's event, the initial hiring of Ansan-Wa Stadium, which was one of the venues for this year's WARP Summit, was subsequently cancelled, causing great controversy. Last year, the Supreme Court recognized Shincheonjis opposition that Shincheonji church is not an anti-social, anti-national organization, and the WARP Summit is a peaceful event in connection with the documentary, people who fell into Shincheonji, broadcasted by CBS in March 2015. In spite of this fact, even public officials are swayed by the logic of the opposite party to Shincheonji church that labels Shincheonji church as an anti-social, anti-national organization'. This has drawn criticism about the selfishness of religion in shaking the foundations of the constitutional government. ◆ The Supreme Court recognized the right to refute that Shincheonji is not an illegal anti-national organization In March 2015, in the first part of People who fell into Shincheonji, the libel documentary of Shicheonji Church, CBS reported interviews of Mr. Eom who meant that Shincheonji is an anti-national and illegal organization. But in regard with this, the Supreme Court admitted that Shincheonji church was not an illegal organization to abide by the law and achieve its illegal goals. And also it admitted that Shincheonji church is not an anti-national organization with the aim of national change or government. ◆The Supreme Court upheld the objection that we are not a church that encourages running away from home and causes us to cut off heaven and earth. During the second part of the March 2015 documentary 'People who fell into Shincheonji church', CBS alleged, through its lead representative Sang-wook Byun, that "Shincheonji incites congregation members to run away from home and to disown their families". Anti-Shincheonji groups who slander Shincheonji church, like 'Shinpimo' for example, strongly insist that this gives Korean society the false impression that Shincheonji church is a social evil. However, regarding CBS's claims, the Supreme Court upheld Shicheonjis objection such that Shicheonji church strictly ban students from running away and instruct them to be good to their parents and also the above report generalizes the story of a few specific people. The argument that Shincheonji church encourages its congregation members to run away from home was ascertained to be a lie in Daily Cheonji's investigative report. In October 2016, members of Shincheonji Victims' Family Union staged a massive campaign around Hongik University pleading for the return of their children. Citizens, who saw their teary appeals, agreed that Shincheonji church is a troublesome organization. Following the campaign, and after some difficulty, Daily Cheonji contacted the children of parents present at the campaign. (Related article | Give my child back who has fallen into Shincheonji church? Investigation into the children) Speaking online with Daily Cheonji, these 'children who had run away from home' responded, rather embarrassed, "I'm already at home, why are they holding a campaign for me?" One child said "I talk to my parents every day. I can't go home because they want to take me to receive coercive conversion, and not welcome me back home, which then makes me afraid of going back home." Children who can't return home worry that their parents may take them to coercive conversion, and they speak to their family on the phone. They maintain that "It is not because of Shincheonji church that I feel unable to return home, but because of family who want to take me to a coercive conversion pastor who is urging them on. They are so reckless." Through previous investigations carried out by Suwon District Public Prosecutors' Office in 2007 and 2014, it has already been proven that Shincheonji has never encouraged runaways. ◆The Supreme Court acknowledges the Right of Reply of Shincheonji church, "Shincheonji church doesn't force or brainwash its congregation members, or ask them to disown their families." During the second part of 'People who fell into Shincheonji church' in March 2015, CBS reported "Shincheonji church brainwashed and demanded a congregation member to disown her family and forced her to quit her job." However, in response to this, the Supreme Court passed the following judgement: "Shincheonji church hasn't brainwashed its congregation members, but permits members to decide freely through the teachings of the Word. The religious life of Shincheonji church's congregation members is not forced, and the church has never demanded them to disown their families", acknowledging Shincheonji churchs right of reply. ◆The Supreme Court Acknowledges the Right of Reply of Shincheonji church, "Shincheonji church is neither an anti-social nor criminal organization." During the third part of 'People who fell into Shincheonji church' in March 2015, CBS broadcast the interview with pastor Hyun-ook Sin, who said "Shincheonji church has been deceiving numerous souls and created conflict between families and church members including suicide, violence, divorce, runaways, suspending ones studies, quitting jobs etc., which is more than just a religious problem, but one that is also anti-social and criminal. In response to this, the Supreme Court's judgement stated: "The majority of instances of divorce, runaways, family conflict, suspension of ones study etc. occur because of the coercive conversion programmes implemented by coercive conversion pastors under the Heresy Handling Committee of the Christian Council of Korea which violates the will of Shincheonji church's congregation members. As the coercive conversion program begins, most parents of Shincheonji church's congregation members spontaneously quit their livelihoods or stop their children going to school or work. Moreover, these problems are related to only a handful of Shincheonji church congregation members, acknowledging Shincheonji churchs right of reply. ◆The Supreme Court acknowledges Shincheonji churchs right of reply: "The WARP Summit (World Alliance of Religions' Peace) is not a camouflage event." At the fourth part of the documentary, people who fell into Shnincheonji, CBS broadcast the interview of the reporter Mr. Song, saying "The WARP Summit has a hidden intention and foreigners are exploited by Shincheonji church. Foreign leaders are deceived." However, the Supreme Court affirmed Shincheonji churchs right of reply with the statement: "The WARP Summit is a global peace forum. Shincheonji church thoroughly explained the purpose of the event beforehand so it has never deceived foreigners". According to the ruling of the second trial of last year, it states that under the Press Arbitration Law, the refutation report is a factual account of the arguments that have already been reported before, and should not be peripheral. It also explains that the meaning of the refutation report is to give readers a chance to balance judgment between the two conflicting facts. That is, order for refutation report is given only when the court only when the court admits the applicants claim as true. ◆"'Constant Harassment' works better than the Law" But even after the Supreme Court ruling, the opponents of Shincheonji Church continue to make ridiculous claims. In fact, the renting of the Ansan-Wa Stadium was also cancelled due to the absurd argument of them that Shincheonji Church should not lend because Shincheonji church is a group of problems. A congregation member of Shincheonji church said "In the case of Ansan-Wa stadium, constant harassment worked better than judgement by the law. Shincheonji church is constantly suffering from Protestants who oppress public officials for their personal vested interests." This member emphasized that "The constitutional government judges only by the law, not by the power of a particular party. When an officials duty is fulfilled according to the law, the long-term abuse of power and authority by certain religious institutions will disappear. On the other hand, on November 23, the Supreme Court's second division (Chief Justice Kwon Soon-il) concluded the second sentence: CBS that aired the "People who fell into Shicheonji must issue correction on 1 case and refutation on 8 cases, and then pay compensation of 8 million won to Shincheoji, which judged partially in favor of Shincheonji. Thereby CBS broadcasted a correction and refutation report at 3 a.m. on November 30, when all the people fell asleep, which Press Ethics has come to the fore. (Source: image captured from CBSs correction and counterargument statement on broadcasting on 30 November 2017)

[New Year's Interview] Shincheonji Church of Jesus “Let us check who is the cult based on the Bible”

Sharp words on the close relationships between church and state regarding their vested rights Ban Ki-Moon-Shincheonji implication is an artificial plot Shincheonji, despite being faultless falsely charged being accusedofcult and anti-social Should see and listen in person, and then compare with the bible - instead of a mindless condemnation [Cheonji-ilbo(H.E. Times)=Kang, Su Kyung] Despite the Article 20 Paragraph 1 and 2 in constitution which states Every people have the rights and freedom of religion, and politics and religion must be separatedthe reality is all the politicians share the power with religious leaders of Christianity, and they too are obsessed with this privilege of power received from the politicians. This clearly violates the constitution in article 20, and also to the reason of both heaven and earth.The politicians should work according to the constitution, and religious leaders must act based on the scriptures. Chairman Man-Hee Lee of Shincheonji Church of Jesus (Shincheonji Church of Jesus the Temple of the Tabernacle of the Testimony) has urged for self-reflection to those in politics and religion on the 25th during the New Years interview.Bearing in mind of the recent controversy, he asserted that Shincheonji has done nothing wrong both spiritually and in flesh and further suggested It is a falsely made accusation against Shincheonjiwithout the base of bible, which is trulya lie, by the Christian Council of Korea, and there must be an objective examination based on the studies of bible before the people of the nation in order to determine who is truly the cult. - What is the reason behind for all these accusations on Shincheonji Church of Jesus by the organizations such as Christian Broadcasting System (CBS), the media backed Christianity community and their religious bodies? This is truly a reality which has come into effect where persecution takes place only when the real Gods kingdom establishes as the bible states. From a personal perspective, this movement by those persecuting is done in order to protect and preserve their vested rights. They particularly feel Shincheonjito be their biggest threat because many of their believers are actually moving to Shincheonji as theyve all discovered Shincheonjiis where Gods true words exist and hence, the Christianity communities believe Shincheonji is a threat to their vested rights despite the fact that true God is with Shincheonji. The CBS has publicly declared war against Shincheonji in the aim to protect Christianity of Korea. However, one thing to note is that the CBS persecutes those who are not part of their organization without the basis of the bible. - The Democratic Party published a request for an explanation regarding an implication between former UN secretary general Ban Ki-Moon and Shincheonji.The Democratic Party has asserted similar involvement between Saenuri Party and Shincheonji previously. What is your view on this? Such conduct by the Democratic Party has been happening on every election. On previous occasion was an artificial insistence to force involvement between Saenuri Party and Shincheonji simply because of the partys name. And the recent implication between Mr. Ban Ki-Moon and Shincheonji, again, is an identical behavior of conduct that was aimed to receive votes from the vested and established Christianity community by holding in check on the former secretary general. Not only the Democratic Party, but almost all of the politicians who attend the debate at the CBS would all condemn Shincheonji in the hopes to please the CBS and win the votes from the community it would be difficult for the politicians to simply ignore the votes of those of the majority established Christians hence supporting the established Christians in persecuting Shincheonji. Knowing that the Democratic Party politically cooperates with the CBS No-Cut News historically since this article has always been pro-opposition party, it is not surprising to see such behavior of the Democratic Party. However, it is unacceptable to acknowledge such conduct of a public party of a country that unilaterally supports one side without checking the correct facts simply to receive more votes - despite the fact that politicians must work for the country and for the best interest of the people objectively. Being a representative of the people and congressmen of the democratic country is it correct to threaten the people in a democratic nation with the rights received by its own people? Let us (CBS, opposition party and Shincheonji) all then speak directly before the people openly. If you are truly confident and convinced, you shouldbe able to come openly to speak with us in public. The religious leaders, media and political leaders must come out openly for conversation instead of persecuting like animals which dont even search for basic objective facts from the first place. - As a religious leader, what is your diagnosis on the relationship between politics and religion in the Republic of Korea? Republic of Korea was once under Japanese Imperialism, and under harsh oppression. The Christians during that era (The Christian Council of Korea today) was so corrupted that they submitted, bowed down and praised the alien god of the Japanese, just like King Solomon did in the ancient Israel. An evidence is the Goshinpa(高神派), which has separated as a result of it. Ever since the liberation from the Japanese and the military coup, the conservative Christians were united to support the military regime of their constitutional amendment (election for the third term) in order to hold power in the religious world and this was the core root and foundation of the Christian Council of Korea. With this, when Saenuri Party took power, the Christianity community shook hands with this party, and when the opposition party was superior in the National Assembly Election afterwards, the Christian Council of Korea colluded with the opposition party accordingly. Article 20 Paragraph 1 and 2 in the constitution clearly states that every people have the freedom of religion, and that politics and religion must be separated. The politicians are obsessed in receiving more votes from Christianity community by trying to make them happy, and at the same time, pastors in the Christianity community are also so keen in having closer relationship with the politicians to preserve the vested rights. Religion and politics are both so corrupted that they have violated the laws of heaven and earth at the same time. Politicians must work and rule under the law of constitution whereas believers in religion must practice their religions according to their scriptures. - Reports suggest that coercive conversion education has been taking place on many occasions towards those believers of minority Christian order such as Shincheonji. What is your opinion on this issue, and your hope from the government and judicial authorities? Coercive conversion education for the purpose of earning money must be exterminated since this is clearly a violation of human basic rights. As mentioned that Article 20 states for the freedom of rights for all the people in this country, these innocent people are threatened physically and forced to convert their religions merely because these people are not in their Christian order this is absolutely unacceptable. The government and judicial authorities must sentence strict punishment to those who have violated the freedom of religion and ideology as well as rights of physical freedom within the boundary of the highest law of constitution regarding the coercive conversion education. However the reality is that the evil coercive conversion education pastors would take advantage of the families of the victims to avoid these laws in the slyest way by controlling the families to conduct such crimes on their behalf. The way these pastors are able to manipulate is because the Christian Medias such as the CBS would artificially plot a false image and impression on Shincheonji, and hence would create an air of anxiety to the families of the victims. With these false propagandas, coercive conversion education pastors would earn a lucrative amount of money, and the CBS and those churches which support such movements are all in coalition as a basis. The proper reaction and the need to handle this by the judicial authorities are imperative. - The ongoing controversy of cult is a big fuss in Korean Christianity than elsewhere. The reality today is that the judgement of being a cult is purely based on political influence and the effect from the society as well as the number of believers of that church not based on the scripture and the theological theories. The Communion of Churches in Korea (CCIK) has separated from the Christian Council of Korea (CCK) because of the difference of opinion on the judgement of being a cult. If anyone has helped the effort for election, he or she would have been removed from being a cult. In contrast, if the interest was different from the first place, then even the head of the emergency cult council would be declared as a cult. A good evidence of this is that a pastor, who was once declared to be a cult, now heads up the head of Shincheonji Emergency Council, which clearly shows the judgement of being a cult is purely decided upon those political influences as well as power. We Shincheonji Church have done nothing wrong both spiritually and in flesh. Those false accusations of Shincheonji Church being an anti-social and anti-national are pure lies fabricated by the pastors of Christian Council of Korea (CCK). Shincheonji Church has been created and established as according to the bible, and therefore, is not a cult. The qualification to determine and judge the cult is only applicable to the Bible and God (Juses) himself. Let us then take examination in public who is the cult according to the Bible. Shincheonji is born by the seed of God, harvested and stamped, cleaned from the sins by the blood of Jesus, and became a family of the 12 tribes as fulfilment of the promise. - Any wish you have from todays Christians? The believers of the New Testament must wish for the fulfilment of the Revelation sincerely, and must wait for it accordingly. And if fulfilment has come into effect, they must not just judge it as a cult, but must see and listen by comparing it to the Bible objectively. Today is the era of fulfilment of the Revelation, and also the end of the world. True believers of Jesus Christ must be harvested, stamped by the Words of God, and be part of the family in the 12 tribes this is the promise of Jesus Christ. It is essential to check and believe the words of bible, not the words of the priest. The pastors must no longer provide false teachings, but should learn from the true teachings from Shincheonji Church, and then teach their own believers accordingly the believers will be happy so much that they would not run away from their churches. ▶한국어 버전: [신년 인터뷰] 신천지예수교회 이만희 총회장 누가 이단인지 성경 기준으로 확인하자 http://www.newscj.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=402211

[global news CheonJi] Islam Sunni-Shi'a Conflict, Why Does It Continue?

Korean ▶ [global news CheonJi] 이슬람 수니시아파 갈등, 왜 지속되나? Conflict began with the controversy of a successor This was due to a difference in understandings of politics and religion The Middle East called as the powder keg of the world. At the center is the 1400 years of conflict between the Islam Sunni and Shi'a. Starting from the New Year as Saudi Arabia, which is an Islam Sunni suzerain state, and Iran, the leading power of Shi'a, collided head- on, this is raising concerns in the international society. The lightning speed execution of Shi'a leaders in their own country by Saudi Arabia early this month became the spark. The enraged people of Iran warned of 'revenge in the name of God.' At this, Saudi Arabia and its allied nations declared a severance of diplomatic relations with Iran; and the conflict between the two nations as well as the religious denominations grew deeper. The Islamic religion is second only to Christianity in terms of divisions within the group. The Muslim (Islamite) population is about 1.6 billion people (Sunni 83%, Shi'a 17%) in the entire world. Their conflict between religious denominations has gone beyond political dispute into a variable that shakes the world situation. ◆Sunni-Shi'a conflict that began with the controversy of a successor In A.D. 632 after the death of Mahomet Mohammed, the founder of Islam, the Islam religion fell into a big maelstrom. When Mohammed died without choosing the next successor, the conflict between the two denominations started. . In a society where religion and politics is not divided, Islam becomes divided on the matter of a successor. The people who strongly consider the tribal traditions and people who strongly regard the bloodline of Muhammad Ali. The Sunni said, "Let us newly choose a successor under agreement." while the Shi'a said "Let us elect a successor from the family of Muhammad." Conflict arose as each made their claims. In the process, the Shi'a chose the younger cousin of Muhammad as the successor and tried to establish him as the highest ruler called 'Khalifah'. However, the act of assassination by the Sunni took place in A.D. 661. At this time, many thousands of people in the Shi'a group suffered martyrdom. This was the beginning of the religious war between the Sunni and the Shi'a. ◆International Society in a headache because of the misuse of conflict between religious denominations by the IS The Sunni consider the religious text of the Quran as eternal and they remain faithful and devoted to the interpretations. On the other hand, the Shi'a consider the 'imam(one who guides)' as one who comes close to Muhammad as an absolutely perfect existence and they believe in their interpretations of the Quran. Other than the five pillars of Sunni, which are confession of the one and only God, service, offerings, fasting during Ramadan, and pilgrimage, the Shi'a are including the jihad(temple) and good deeds as additions. Especially because of the jihad concept that one can head to the temple to protect Islam territory, creed, and instruments, the Shi'a gives an aggressive impression. Saudi ArabiaEgyptSudanArab EmiratesTurkey etc are Sunni countries and IranBahrain etc are Shi'a countries. The Middle East, which is composed mainly of Islam countries, is unceasing in conflicts due to the difference in understanding on politicsreligion. The reason why Islam armed forces, the Islamic States(IS) and the Taliban are swinging their arms is here. The IS, which is striking fear on the entire world especially through civil wars and terrorism, is cleverly using the religious conflict and causing a headache on the international society by raising dispute between the Middle EastEurope and refugee situations. Recently a public survey research organization in America let out a prediction that by the year 2070, the Islam religion will rise as the world's largest religion. But some people voice their concerns that if the a solution for the dispute between the Islam religious denominations. If it is not found, we cannot guarantee a bright society in the future for the young generations. Even American President Obama and UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon are appealing that people of religion and the international society must put their heads together to resolve the disputes and conflicts caused by religion. The time has come for politicsreligionpeople to hope for peace with one heart through the law and order acknowledged by the international society. By Park Jun-sung pjs@newscj.com

[global news CheonJi] Why Did the Mayans Disappear in History?

Korean ▶[global news CheonJi] 찬란했던 마야문명, 왜 역사 속에서 사라졌을까 Maya Civilization Reached Improbable Heights and Fell to Ruins The mysterious splendor of the Maya unfolded against the backdrop of the rainforests of Central America. Here, Maya civilization reached improbable heights about 1,300 years and fell to ruins. The Ancient Mayans were highly advanced in astronomy. Besides having the concept of Zero, they are possibly the first culture to invent the telescope and map the stars and other phenomena in the night sky applying complex ideas of mathematics. With this information, they knew how to predict solar eclipses. They also used astrological cycles to aid in planting and harvesting and developed two calendars. Based upon their vigesimal numeric system they developed the two main calendars: a ceremonial calendar which is a 260-day calendar, and the vague calendar of 365 days which is more accurate than the Gregorian calendar developed 1,500 years later. Mayan calendar system had a cycle of 52 solar years. Mayan people interpreted the end of one cycle as the end of the world, and the would move and build new pyramids. The heightened buzz in modern eschatology several years ago had its root in the Mayan calendar. According to Mayans calculations based on the long-count calendar, one baktun contains 144,000 days. They proclaimed their time to be in the 6th baktun of the Great Cycle and recorded their calendar only up to 21 December 2012 of the modern Gregorian Calendar. Based on findings, apocalyptics predicted the end of the world, but that ended up as a mere happening. Religion was the center of Mayan culture and priests were extremely important in Mayan society. They carried the role of as mediums between common people and gods, and they were also expected to be well educated in astrology and astronomy, which might be one of the reasons for the development of Mayan astronomy. The Maya universe consisted of three worlds; the underworld, the earth, and the world above sky. Mayans believed that each world was looked over by gods, and these layers were associated with the pyramid. For this reason you easily find the temple for gods everywhere in Tikal ruins in Guatemala and Chichen Itza in Mexico. Mayan scriptures of divination describes the Popol Vuh, the creator who made mankind from maize flour by mixing it with his blood. In a way of showing appreciation and pleasing the gods, Mayans sacrificed human blood. Inscribed stones in Mayan temples bear witness to the practice of human sacrifice. Generally, only prisoners of high status or aristocrats were made human sacrifice. Before taken to the altar, the prisoners had to go through many rituals including fasting to be prepared fit for a sacrifice. Mayans worshiped the sun, rain, the moon, Jaguars, snakes, maize and many other objects as gods. Featured serpent and Chac, the god of rain often appears in the temples of later Mayan cities. For example, a temple for Kukulkan in Chichen Itza has large snake-head sculptures engraved on the base of the staircase. In the spring and fall a play of light and shadow creates the appearance of a snake that gradually undulates down the stairway of the pyramid. This temple was dedicated to offering human sacrifices in the form of heart extraction, similar to Aztec priests tearing out the victims heart when they made human sacrifices to their god of sun. Originating in the Yucat around 2600 B.C., Maya civilization rose to prominence around A.D. 500 - 600 in present day southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize and El Salvador covering almost 500,000㎢. It started to decline after the 7th century when Mayan moved further inland from Yucat because of deforestation and the Caribbean invasion. After the 10th century, one of the Halach Uinic, living god moved back to Yucat and the Maya were integrated into the Toltec society. Maya civilization did go through a brief renaissance, met its fall after the 13th century. Theories diverge on what caused the fall of Maya; the Mayapan or the Aztec advancing into Mayan land. Most of the Mayan cities had fallen to ruin and were overtaken by Spanish conquistadors in the 16th century. After missionaries arrived from Spain, most of the sacred images and manuscripts were burned by the Spanish clergy. Years later, parts of Maya's mystery was unveiled when Mayan hieroglyphic were discovered carved on stone walls. By Kang Soo-Kyung ksk@newscj.com

[global news CheonJi] 찬란했던 마야문명, 왜 역사 속에서 사라졌을까

영문판 ▶[global news CheonJi] Why Did the Mayans Disappear in History? 중앙아메리카 열대 밀림의 오지 깊숙한 곳에 약 1300년 동안 화려한 문명을 꽃피우다가 일순간 폐허가 돼버린 수수께끼 같은 마야문명의 흔적이 있다. 마야문명은 고도의 천문학을 자랑했다. 첨단기기나 망원경도 없었을 시기에 단지 천체를 관측하고 자연의 이치를 터득하는 것만으로 약 20개의 달력을 만들어냈다. 이들은 20진법을 사용했고, 0의 개념을 세계에서 최초로 이해한 부족으로 밝혀졌다. 지구가 둥글고 태양의 주위를 돌고 있다는 것을 알았으며 위도와 경도의 개념, 행성들의 이동 법칙을 이해하고 있었다. 농경에 쓴 365일로 계산된 태양력은 1500년이나 늦게 만들어진 그레고리력보다 더 정확하다는 평가를 받는다. 제사를 지낼 때 사용했던 제례주기는 1년을 260일로 계산했다. 이 두 달력은 52년마다 일치했는데, 마야인들은 이때마다 이 세상이 한 번씩 끝나는 것으로 믿고 살던 도시를 버리고 다른 곳으로 옮겨가 새로운 피라미드를 건설했다. 몇 년 전에는 마야 달력 때문에 전 세계가 종말론에 휩싸이기도 했다. 마야인들은 고유한 장기 날짜 계산법을 토대로 14만 4000일을 1박툰으로 봤다. 자신들은 6박툰에 사는 것으로 보고 달력을 2012년 12월 21일까지만 기록했다. 이를 토대로 종말론자들은 지구 종말을 주장했지만 결국 해프닝으로 끝났다. 마야문명에서 종교는 절대적인 가치였고, 신관(神官)의 지위는 막강했다. 마야의 천문학이 발달한 것도 신과 인간을 이어주기 위해 신관이 공적으로 쌓은 것이라는 분석이 있다. 마야인은 세계를 세 가지로 분류했다. 지하세계와 현 세계, 지상의 세계이다. 지하와 지상의 세계에는 계층별로 주관하는 신이 존재한다고 여겼고, 그 신들의 세계는 피라미드와 연결된다고 믿었다. 초기 과테말라 티칼 유적지에서 후기 멕시코의 치첸잇차까지 마야문명의 피라미드에서 신전들이 빠지지 않고 등장하는 이유이기도 하다. 마야인들의 성서인 포폴 부에서는 창조주인 신이 옥수수 가루에 자신의 피를 섞어 사람을 만들었다고 기록돼 있다. 이 때문에 마야인들은 신의 희생에 보답하는 의미에서 피를 제물로 바쳤다. 신전에서 발견되는 그림을 보면 지배계층인 왕족과 귀족들이 제물이었다는 사실을 알 수 있다. 이들의 피를 뽑아 제물로 사용한 장면이 그려졌다. 이들은 제물이 되기 위해 금욕, 금식 등 정결 의식을 치렀던 것으로 조사됐다. 마야인들이 섬긴 신은 태양비달, 재규어뱀, 옥수수 등 다양했다. 마야 후기에 번성한 도시로 갈수록 신전에서는 뱀과 비의 신 착(하반신이 뱀의 모양)의 형상이 자주 등장한다. 일례로 치첸잇차에 착을 위해 지은 쿠쿨칸의 신전이 있다. 이 피라미드 하단부에는 거대한 뱀 머리 조각들이 있으며, 봄가을 태양의 이동에 따라 거대한 뱀이 기어가는 형상이 연출된다. 이 신전에는 사람의 심장이 제물로 바쳐졌다. 태양신을 섬기며 대량의 인신공양을 한 아스텍의 전통과 비슷하다. 마야문명은 기원전 1세기 발생해 서기 500~600년 정점을 이뤘다. 과테말라와 멕시코 남부, 온두라스, 베리제, 엘살바도르에 걸쳐 50만㎢에 달하는 지역에서 번성했다. 7세기 이후 척박한 농지와 카리브족의 계속된 침략 때문에 유카탄 반도에서 내륙으로 이동하며 쇠퇴기를 맞았다. 이후 10세기 말 후손 마야 부족들이 신으로 숭배한 부족장 케찰 새의 깃털 달린 뱀이 다시 유카탄 반도로 건너가 다른 민족인 톨테카족과 섞여 신 마야문명을 일으켰다. 이후 번성하는 듯했지만 13세기 이후 마야판 세력에 멸망당했고, 아스텍 민족의 지배를 받았다는 견해가 있다. 이후 마야의 도시들은 돌연 폐허로 변했고, 16세기에 와서는 스페인에 정복당했다. 스페인의 선교사들은 마야의 제례의식을 경멸해 그들의 문서와 자료를 모두 불태웠고, 훗날 벽화에 남겨진 문자가 발견돼 마야문명의 일부가 베일을 벗었다.